Nobody drops a game-changer like the Carter family. This morning it was Jay Z. The fire collaboration is the latest from the Drug Policy Alliance , one of the most respected change agents in the multidecade struggle for sentencing reform and sane drug policy. Progressive journalist, writer, and studio artist Molly Crabapple is the swift arm bringing life to the pen and ink representations of three decades of poor drug policy, mandatory sentencing, and explosive incarceration rates.
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Despite evidence that large numbers of whites use and sell crack cocaine, federal law enforcement in Southern California has waged its war against crack almost exclusively in minority neighborhoods, exposing black and Latino offenders to the toughest drug penalties in the nation. Not a single white, records show, has been convicted of a crack cocaine offense in federal courts serving Los Angeles and six Southland counties since Congress enacted stiff mandatory sentences for crack dealers in Only a few whites have been federally prosecuted in the region stretching from San Luis Obispo to the Mexican border, while hundreds of minorities have been locked up in federal prison. Virtually all white crack offenders have been prosecuted in state court, where sentences are far less. The difference can be up to eight years for the same offense. In Los Angeles County, hundreds of white crack traffickers were convicted in state court between and , according to data obtained by The Times. No whites were prosecuted federally during this period, though one was indicted a few months ago and is awaiting trial.
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Today, cocaine may be stereotyped as a drug favored by whites — business executives or rock stars, perhaps. But its beginnings were mired in racism, in some cases forcing cocaine use on black slaves and workers for increased production. Learn more about the history of cocaine and crack, how history has reshaped the reputation of the drugs, and how the legal system handles sentencing differently by drug type and race. The editorial staff of luxury.
Wendy K. Lam, Phd, Jessica D. Eke, Phd, Diana H. Fishbein, Phd, Stephanie R. Hawkins, Phd, J. Objective To examine relationships between parenting behaviors, parent—child relationship, and moderating effects of age on youth substance use among a community sample of African-American mothers who use crack cocaine and their children 12—17 years. Outreach and family-focused interventions that address family conflict and communication of disapproval of substance use may help reduce intergenerational risk transmission. However, longitudinal research with comprehensive parenting assessments is needed.