A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance as compared to a general-purpose computer. Supercomputers play an important role in the field of computational science , and are used for a wide range of computationally intensive tasks in various fields, including quantum mechanics , weather forecasting , climate research , oil and gas exploration , molecular modeling computing the structures and properties of chemical compounds, biological macromolecules , polymers, and crystals , and physical simulations such as simulations of the early moments of the universe, airplane and spacecraft aerodynamics , the detonation of nuclear weapons , and nuclear fusion. They have been essential in the field of cryptanalysis.
10 of the world's fastest supercomputers
Over four seasons and more than songs, Crazy Ex-Girlfriend has parodied nearly every possible topic and musical genre. Even their middling entries would still be the envy of the YouTube parody culture from which Bloom emerged. The season-one subplot about Greg overseeing romantic intrigue at the grocery store was a bit of a space filler as it is, and though it only clocks in about 45 seconds, this grocery-themed acoustic tune still feels agonizingly long. Is this a much bigger issue in Southern California? After all, Greg was able to keep his drinking problem under the radar — well, from everyone but Paula — for quite some time.
The history of supercomputing goes back to the early s in the United States with the IBM tabulators at Columbia University and a series of computers at Control Data Corporation CDC , designed by Seymour Cray to use innovative designs and parallelism to achieve superior computational peak performance. While the supercomputers of the s used only a few processors, in the s, machines with thousands of processors began to appear both in the United States and in Japan, setting new computational performance records. By the end of the 20th century, massively parallel supercomputers with thousands of "off-the-shelf" processors similar to those found in personal computers were constructed and broke through the teraflop computational barrier. Progress in the first decade of the 21st century was dramatic and supercomputers with over 60, processors appeared, reaching petaflop performance levels. Around , Cray decided to design a computer that would be the fastest in the world by a large margin. Cray switched from germanium to silicon transistors, built by Fairchild Semiconductor , that used the planar process. These did not have the drawbacks of the mesa silicon transistors. He ran them very fast, and the speed of light restriction forced a very compact design with severe overheating problems, which were solved by introducing refrigeration, designed by Dean Roush.
The TOP ranking of the fastest supercomputers in the world was announced today, with absolutely no change in the computers ranking in the top10 since the last semi-annual rating in June. Overall, the aggregate performance of the entire TOP list sits at 1. Check out the rest of this slideshow to see details on the current topranking machines. Lassen is the unclassified version of Sierra, its classified sister machine at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.